(a) new biological materials from the advances in the 1 sciences (31); (b) reductions in the cost of producing chemical fertilizers (3 (c) reductions in the cost of transporting these heavy fertili rials (better ocean shipping facilities and larger freight* economical ways of moving these materials overland—e lines to transport nitrogen); (d) reductions in the cost of applying fertilizer to the field the crop is grown (33, 34); (e) increases in the supply of many new products that an protect crops from pests, insects, and crop diseases and t the growth of weeds (pesticides, insecticides, fungicides bicides) (4,35); (f) increases in the availability of diesel motors and of eleci electric motors to operate tubewells; (g) more tractors either to supplement or replace draft ani (h) improvements in the skills of farm people, of major importance as the process of modernization becomes in< complex and as the availability of new types of agricultu increases (7, 36, 37). An economic perspective of the food supply depends on the intei of these propositions as the supply responds and adjusts to chan; demand. I shall restrict my interpretation mainly to development determining the supply of food of the low income countries. The F pretation is instructive; I shall begin with it. My own interpretati comes next is more modest. I shall also comment on the effects c tural modernization on rice and wheat (the two most important foe because they are more telling than any overview. The FAO Interpretations The FAO has marshaled an impressive body of technical and information on the demand and supply of food (4). It is more comp than either the Asian Agricultural Survey (35) or the array of forei^ tural economic reports of the United States Department of A (USDA). All these reports, however, supplement each other. It ; borne in mind that the core of the FAO study was prepared shadow of near-famine conditions in parts of India during the mid remarkable increases in the production of wheat and rice, especially India and Pakistan as a consequence of the rapid adoption of hig new varieties that are responsive to fertilizer, along with a large incrc supply of fertilizer, occurred after the FAO study was almost coi several comments throughout the report some account is taken ofts in the supply, defined as increases in production at some constant price, or at a somewhat lower price relative to consumer prices, are a consequence of improvements in the underlying agricultural production possibilities.